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Zhuang–Atherton optimum PID controller will be presented in Sec. ... in a PID controller, the error signal e(t) is used to generate the proportional
PID (proportional integral derivative) control is one of the earlier control strategies . Its early implementation was in pneumatic devices, followed by vacuum and solid state analog electronics, before arriving at today’s digital implementation of microprocessors. It has a simple control structure which was understood by plant operators and which they found relatively easy to tune. Since many control systems using PID control have proved satisfactory, it still has a wide range of applications in industrial control. According to a survey for process control systems conducted in 1989, more than 90 of the control loops were of the PID type . PID control has been an active research topic for many years;see the monographs [60–64]. Since many process plants controlled by PID controllers have similar dynamics it has been found possible to set satisfactory controller parameters from less plant information than a complete mathematical model. These techniques came about because of the desire to adjust controller parameters in situ with a minimum of effort, and also because of the possible difficulty and poor cost benefit of obtaining mathematical models. The two most popular PID techniques were the step reaction curve experiment, and a closed-loop “cycling” experiment under proportional control around the nominal operating point.
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