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10.1 Introduction Fluid Power Systems • Electrohydraulic Control Systems 10.2 Hydraulic Fluids Density • Viscosity • Bulk Modulus 10.3 Hydraulic Control Valves Principle of Valve Control • Hydraulic Control Valves 10.4 Hydraulic Pumps Principles of Pump Operation • Pump Controls and Systems 10.5 Hydraulic Cylinders Cylinder Parameters 10.6 Fluid Power Systems Control System Steady-State Characteristics • System Dynamic Characteristics • E/H System Feedforward-Plus-PID Control • E/H System Generic Fuzzy Control 10.7 Programmable Electrohydraulic Valves Qin Zhang University of Illinois Carroll E. Goering University of Illinois
Fluid Power Systems A fluid power system uses either liquid or gas to perform desired tasks. Operation of both the liquid systems (hydraulic systems) and the gas systems (pneumatic systems) is based on the same principles. For brevity, we will focus on hydraulic systems only. A fluid power system typically consists of a hydraulic pump, a line relief valve, a proportional direction control valve, and an actuator (Fig. 10.1). Fluid power systems are widely used on aerospace, industrial, and mobile equipment because of their remarkable advantages over other control systems. The major advantages include high power-to-weight ratio, capability of being stalled, reversed, or operated intermittently, capability of fast response and acceleration, and reliable operation and long service life. Due to differing tasks and working environments, the characteristics of fluid power systems are different for industrial and mobile applications (Lambeck, 1983). In industrial applications, low noise level is a major concern. Normally, a noise level below 70 dB is desirable and over 80 dB is excessive. Industrial systems commonly operate in the low (below 7 MPa or 1000 psi) to moderate (below 21 MPa or 3000 psi) pressure range. In mobile applications, the size is the premier concern. Therefore, mobile hydraulic systems commonly operate between 14 and 35 MPa (2000–5000 psi). Also, their allowable temperature operating range is usually higher than in industrial applications.
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