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[ pdf ] Handbook of Robotics

Handbook of Robotics Download
Topic under  Robot Controllers
Source: www.isir.upmc.fr 
File size: 1.52 MB
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Last download on: Mon Nov 12, 2018 07:51:35 AM
Short Desciption:
Chapter 40 in this Handbook is devoted to distributed and cellular robots ...... thermoplastic, linear actuators and neurons evolved from scratch to yield ...

Human inventors and engineers have always found in Nature’s products an inexhaustible source of inspiration. About 2400 years ago, for instance, Archytas of Tarentum allegedly built a kind of flying-machine, a wooden pigeon balanced by a weight suspended from a pulley, and set in motion by compressed air escaping from a valve. Likewise, circa 105 AD, the Chinese eunuch Ts’ai Lun is credited with inventing paper, after watching a wasp create its nest. More recently, the architectural design of the still-unfinished Sagra Familia cathedral in Barcelona displays countless borrowings from mineral and vegetal exuberance.
Although a similar tendency underlie all attempts at building automata or proto-robots up to the middle of the last century (Cordeschi, 2002), in the last decades roboticists borrowed much more from mathematics, mechanics, electronics and computer science than from biology. On the one hand, this approach undoubtedly solidified the technical foundations of the discipline and lead to the production of highly successful products, especially in the field of industrial robotics. On the other hand, it served to better appreciate the gap that still separates a robot from an animal, at least when qualities of autonomy and adaptation are sought. As such qualities are required in a continually growing application field -- from planet exploration to domestic uses -- a spectacular reversal of interest towards living creatures can be noticed in current-day robotics, up to the point that it has been said that natural inspiration is the “new wave” of robotics (Paulson, 2004).
Undoubtedly, this new wave would not have been possible without the synergies generated by recent advances in biology -- where so-called integrative approaches now produce a huge amount of data and models directly exploitable by roboticists --, and in technology -- with the massive availability of low-cost and power-efficient computing systems, and with the development of new materials exhibiting new properties. This will be demonstrated in this article that first reviews recent research efforts in bioinspired morphologies, sensors, and actuators. Then, control architecture that, beyond mere reflexes, implement cognitive abilities -- like memory or planning -- or adaptive processes -- like learning, evolution and development -- will be described. Finally, the article will also report related works on energetic autonomy, collective robotics, and biohybrid robots.
It should be noted that this chapter will describe both bioinspired and biomimetic realizations. In fact, these two terms respectively characterize the extremities of a continuum for which, on the one side, engineers seek to reproduce some natural result, but not necessarily the underlying means, while, on the other side, they seek to reproduce both the results and the means. Thus, bioinspired robotics tends to adapt to traditional engineering approaches some principles that are abstracted from the observation of some living creature, whereas biomimetic robotics tends to replace classical engineering solutions by as detailed mechanisms or processes that it is possible to reproduce from the observation of this creature. In practice, any specific application usually lies somewhere between these two extremities. Be that as it may, because biomimetic realizations are always bioinspired, whereas the reverse is not necessarily true, qualifying expressions like bioinspired or biologically-inspired will be preferentially used in this chapter.
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    "Handbook of Robotics"



    Posted by Nugroho
    Sun Sep 18, 2011 08:26:15 AM

    I have fixed the link, enjoy reading

    Posted by shriya
    Sun Jul 31, 2011 03:33:43 PM

    the link is not found and can't downloaf

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