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Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, 1 Introduction 12 1.1 Book Objective . 12 1.2 Wireless Systems 13 1.3 Book Outline 16 2 The Wireless Channel 21 2.1 Physical Modeling for Wireless Channels . 21 2.1.1 Free space, fixed transmitting and receive antennas . 23 2.1.2 Free space, moving antenna 24 2.1.3 Reflecting wall, fixed antenna . 25 2.1.4 Reflecting wall, moving antenna 27 2.1.5 Reflection from a Ground Plane 29 2.1.6 Power Decay with Distance and Shadowing 30 2.1.7 Moving Antenna, Multiple Reflectors . 31 2.2 Input/Output Model of the Wireless Channel 32 2.2.1 The Wireless Channel as a Linear Time-Varying System 32 2.2.2 Baseband Equivalent Model 34 2.2.3 A Discrete Time Baseband Model . 37 Discussion 2.1 Degrees of Freedom . 40 2.2.4 Additive White Noise 41
Why We Wrote this Book
The writing of this book was prompted by two main developments in wireless communications in the past decade. First is the huge surge of research activities in physical-layer wireless communication theory. While this has been a subject of study since the 60’s, recent developments in the field, such as opportunistic and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication techniques, have brought completely new perspectives on how to communicate over wireless channels. Second is the rapid evolution of wireless systems, particularly cellular networks, which embody communication concepts of increasing sophistication. This evolution started with second-generation digital standards, particularly the IS-95 Code Division Multiple Access standard, and continuing onto more recent third-generation systems focusing on data applications. This book aims to present the modern wireless communication concepts in a coherent and unified manner and to illustrate the concepts in the broader context of the wireless systems on which they have been applied.
Structure of the Book
This book is a web of interlocking concepts. The concepts can be structured into roughly three levels:
1. channel characteristics and modeling;
2. communication concepts and techniques;
3. application of these concepts in a system context.
A wireless communication engineer should have an understanding of the concepts at all three levels as well as the tight interplay between the levels. We emphasize this interplay in the book by interlacing the chapters across these levels rather than presenting the topics sequentially from one level to the next.
• Chapter 2: basic properties of multipath wireless channels and their modeling (level 1);
• Chapter 3: point-to-point communication techniques that increase reliability by exploiting time, frequency and spatial diversity (2).
• Chapter 4: cellular system design via a case study of three systems, focusing on multiple access and interference management issues (3).
• Chapter 5: point-to-point communication revisited from a more fundamental capacity point of view, culminating in the modern concept of opportunistic communication (2).
• Chapter 6: multiuser capacity and opportunistic communication, and its application in a third-generation wireless data system (3).
• Chapter 7: MIMO channel modeling (1).
• Chapter 8: MIMO capacity and architectures (2).
• Chapter 9: diversity-multiplexing tradeoff and space-time code design (2).
• Chapter 10: MIMO in multiuser channels and cellular systems (3).
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