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[ pdf ] Point-to-Point Protocols and Links

Point-to-Point Protocols and Links Download
Topic under  Wireless Connectivity
Source: ee.sharif.edu 
File size: 4.64 MB
File type: pdf
Last download on: Wed May 03, 2017 11:59:33 PM
Short Desciption:
This chapter first provides an introduction to the physical communication links that constitute the building blocks of data networks. The major focus of the chapter is then data link control (i.e., the point-to-point protocols needed to control the passage of data over a communication link). Finally, a number of point-to-point protocols at the network, transport, and physical layers are discussed. There are many similarities between the point-to-point protocols at these different layers, and it is desirable to discuss them together before addressing the more complex network-wide protocols for routing, flow control, and multiaccess control.

In this chapter, an introductory survey of the physical layer, a fairly complete treatment of the data link control layer, and a few closely related topics at other layers were presented. From a conceptual standpoint, one important issue has been distributed algorithms between two stations in the presence of errors and arbitrary delays. This has been developed in the context of ARQ, framing, and error recovery at higher layers. The correctness proof of the go back n class of protocols is important here since it shows how to reason carefully about such algorithms. There are many ad hoc algorithms used in data networks that contain subtle bugs, and it is important for designers to learn how to think about such algorithms in a more fundamental and structured way. Another conceptual issue has been the encoding of control information. This was developed in the context of framing and session identification. Although the emphasis here was on efficiency of representation, the most important issue is to focus on the information actually conveyed; for example, it is important to recognize that flags with bit stuffing, length count fields, and special communication control characters all convey the same information but in quite different ways. From a more practical standpoint, discussions were given on how modems work, how CRCs work (and fail), how ARQ works and how it can be made to work more efficiently with carefully chosen time-outs and control feedback. how various kinds of framing techniques work (and fail), how session identification can be accomplished, and how error recovery at different layers can be effected. Many existing networks have been used to illustrate these ideas. Various standards have been discussed, but not in enough detail for one actually to implement them. Unfortunately. if one wishes to implement a protocol in conformance with a standard, one must read the documentation of the standard, which is long and tedious. The purpose here was to give some conceptual understanding of the standard so as to see what the standard accomplishes and how. There are many special-purpose networks in which standard protocols are inappropriate, and it is helpful to know why.
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