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[ pdf ] Routing in Data Networks

Routing in Data Networks Download
Topic under  Wireless Connectivity
Source: ee.sharif.edu 
File size: 4.64 MB
File type: pdf
Last download on: Sun Feb 18, 2018 02:22:37 PM
Short Desciption:
We have frequently referred to the routing algorithm as the network layer protocol that guides packets through the communication subnet to their correct destination. The times at which routing decisions are made depend on whether the network uses datagrams or virtual circuits. In a datagram network, two successive packets of the same user pair may travel along different routes, and a routing decision is necessary for each individual packet (see Fig. 5.1). In a virtual circuit network, a routing decision is made when each virtual circuit is set up. The routing algorithm is used to choose the communication path for the virtual circuit. All packets of the virtual circuit subsequently use this path up to the time that the virtual circuit is either terminated or rerouted for some reason (see Fig. 5.2).

Routing is a sophisticated data network function that requires coordination between the network nodes through distributed protocols. It affects the average packet delay and the network throughput. Our main focus was on methods for route selection. The most common approach, shortest path routing, can be implemented in a variety of ways, as exemplified by the ARPANET and TYMNET algorithms. Depending on its implementation, shortest path routing may cause low throughput, poor response to traffic congestion, and oscillatory behavior. These drawbacks are more evident in datagram than in virtual circuit networks. A more sophisticated alternative is optimal routing based on flow models. Several algorithms were given for computation of an optimal routing, both centralized and distributed. As the statistics of the input arrival processes change more rapidly, the appropriateness of the type of optimal routing we focused on diminishes. In such cases it is difficult to recommend routing methods that are simultaneously efficient and practical. Another interesting aspect of the routing problem relates to the dissemination of routing-related information over failure-prone links. We described several alternative algorithms based on flooding ideas. Finally, routing must be taken into account when designing a network's topology, since the routing method determines how effectively the link capacities are utilized. We described exact and heuristic methods for addressing the difficulties of topological design.
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