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UFC 3-550-03FA. 01 March 2005. UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC). ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND. DISTRIBUTION. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

Summary:
i ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION Paragraph Page CHAPTER 1. GENERAL Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1-1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1-1 Standards and Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1-1 Power Supply Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1-1 Electrical Power Sytems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1-1 Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1-2 Evaluation and Selection of Energy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 1-2 Design Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 1-4 Service Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 1-5 Explanation of Abbreviations and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1-6 CHAPTER 2. ELECTRICAL POWER REQUIREMENTS General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1 Load Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2-1 CHAPTER 3. VOLTAGE SELECTION General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 System Voltage Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 3-1 Selection of Primary Distribution Voltage for New Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3-1 Selection of Primary Distribution Voltage for Existing Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3-2 Commercial Power for Air Force Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3-3 Selection of Primary Distribution Voltage for Air Force Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3-3 CHAPTER 4. MAIN ELECTRIC SUPPLY STATIONS/SUBSTATIONS Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-1 Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4-2 Station Designation and Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4-2 Main Electric Supply Station/Substation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4-2 Environmental Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4-3 Incoming Line Switching Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4-4 Substation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 4-6 Miscellaneous Station Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4-9 Substation Equipment at Air Force Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 4-13 CHAPTER 5. ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION LINES Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-1 Types of Underground Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5-1 Types of Aerial Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5-1 Voltage Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5-2 Power Factor Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 5-2 Medium-Voltage Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 5-3 Pad-Mounted Line Sectionalizing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 5-7 Joint Electrical/Communication Lines for Air Force Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 5-7 CHAPTER 6. AERIAL DISTRIBUTION LINES General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6-1 Installation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 6-1 Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 6-1 Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 6-6 Circuit Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 6-7 Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6-7 Guying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 6-12 Miscellaneous Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8 6-16 Air Force Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9 6-20 CHAPTER 7. UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION LINES General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 7-1 Duct Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 7-6 _______________ *This manual supersedes TM 5-811-1/AFM 88-9, Chapter 1, dated 12 September 1984 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED TM 5-811-1/AFJMAN 32-1080 ii Paragraph Page Manholes, Handholes, and Pullboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 7-7 Direct-Burial Cable Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7-10 CHAPTER 8. TRANSFORMER INSTALLATIONS Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 8-1 Installation of Distribution-to-Utilization Voltage Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 8-1 Installation of Transmission-to-Distribution Voltage Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 8-4 Transformer Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 8-7 Transformer Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 8-8 Amorphous Metal-Core Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 8-12 Transformers at Air Force Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 8-12 CHAPTER 9. SURGE PROTECTION AND GROUNDING Voltage Surges and Potential Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9-1 Methods of Controlling Voltage Surges and Potential Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 9-1 Ground Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 9-5 Grounding Details and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 9-6 CHAPTER 10. ROADWAY AND AREA LIGHTING General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 10-1 Roadway Lighting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 10-1 Area Lighting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 10-4 Walkway and Bikeway Lighting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 10-5 Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 10-5 Lighting Control and Wiring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6 10-6 CHAPTER 11. SECURITY LIGHTING General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 11-1 Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 11-1 Use of Security Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 11-1 Types of Areas to be Lighted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 11-1 Lighting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 11-2 Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 11-4 Electrical Power Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7 11-4 Luminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 11-5 Wiring and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 11-5 Field Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10 11-6 APPENDIX A. REFERENCES A-1 B. SIZING OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE TRANSFORMERS FOR FAMILY HOUSING UNITS B-1 GLOSSARY List of Figures Page Figure 1-1. Primary Distribution Arrangements Commonly Used. 1-3 2-1. Illustration of Diversity Factor Application. 2-2 2-2. Monthly Electric Cost Computation. 2-3 4-1. Converting Utility Company Short-Circuit MVA to Current. 4-4 4-2. Example of Sizing Substation Transformer Capacity. 4-7 4-3. Single-Line of Primary Unit Substation with Two Transformers. 4-8 4-4. Circuit Breaker Interrupting Rating Approximation. 4-9 4-5. Primary Unit Substation, 46 kV Minimum. 4-14 4-6. Main Electric Supply Switching Station, 35 kV Maximum. 4-15 5-1. Normal Allocation of Voltage Drop. 5-3 5-2. An Example of Voltage Drop Calculation. 5-4 5-3. Average Energy Savings Example. 5-5 6-1. An Example of an Aerial Conductor Strength Analysis. 6-5 6-2. Tangent Construction Configurations. 6-8 6-3. Armless Configurations. 6-9 6-4. Crossarm Configurations. 6-10 6-5. Neutral-Supported Secondary Cable Configurations. 6-11 6-6. Ranges of Insulator Dimensions. 6-13 6-7. Expanding Anchor Details. 6-15 6-8. Types of Guy Installations. 6-16 6-9. Guy Details. 6-17 6-10. An Example of an In-Line Guy Strength Analysis. 6-18 6-11. An Example of a Pole Strength Analysis. 6-19 7-1. Fireproofing of Insulated Cables. 7-5 7-2. Concrete Encased Duct Details. 7-8 TM 5-811-1/AFJMAN 32-1080 iii Page 7-3. Duct Line Drainage. 7-9 7-4. Factors Influencing Manhole Design. 7-10 7-5. A Scale Example of a Cable Installed in Manhole. 7-11 7-6. Typical Double Manhole. 7-12 7-7. Manhole Appurtenances. 7-13 7-8. Electric or Communication Handhole. 7-14 7-9. Pullbox Installation. 7-15 7-10. Underground System Marker. 7-16 8-1. Cluster-Mounted Transformer Bank Installation. 8-2 8-2. Crossarm-Mounted Transformer Bank Installation. 8-3 8-3. Pad-Mounted Compartmental Tranformer Installation. 8-5 8-4. Secondary Unit Substation Installation. 8-6 8-5. Secondary Unit Substation Transformer Installation. 8-7 9-1. Zones of Protection for Masts and Shield Wires. 9-4 9-2. Grounding of a Main Electric Supply Substation. 9-7 9-3. Grounding of Secondary Unit Substation Installation. 9-8 9-4. Provision of Surge Arresters at a Medium-Voltage Riser Pole. 9-9 10-1. Typical Roadway Lighting Installation. 10-2 10-2. Lateral Lighting Distributions. 10-3 10-3. Intersection Lighting Placement. 10-4 10-4. Key to Standard HID Lamp Designations. 10-6 11-1. Application of Required Lighting Intensities. 11-3 List of Tables Page Table 1-1. Service Conditions. 1-6 2-1. Typical Demands and Usages. 2-1 2-2. Diversity Factors. 2-2 3-1. System Use and Voltage Range Relationship to Equipment Rating. 3-1 3-2. Nominal System Voltages. 3-2 4-1. Minimum Relaying for Transformers. 4-9 4-2. Minimum Metering for Metal-Clad Switchgear. 4-10 4-3. Minimum Relaying for Metal-Clad Switchgear. 4-10 4-4. Current Transformer (CT) Accuracy Class Ratings for Outdoor Circuit Breakers. 4-12 4-5. Primary Insulator Ratings by Class. 4-15 5-1. Three-Phase Medium-Voltage Circuit Loading Check Values. 5-6 6-1. Conductors Materials-Physical Properties. 6-2 6-2. Initial Stringing Sags for 200-Foot Spans. 6-3 6-3. Final Loaded Tensions for 200-Foot Spans. 6-4 6-4. Minimum Primary Wood Pole Lengths and Classes. 6-6 6-5. Minimum Pole-Setting Depth. 6-6 6-6. Relation of Crossarm Configuration to Conductor Size. 6-7 6-7. Anchors Suitable for Various Soils. 6-14 7-1. Rated Conductor Temperatures. 7-3 7-2. Comparison of DC Test Voltages (kV). 7-6 8-1. Transformer Standard Base kVA Ratings. 8-8 8-2. Daily Allowable Peak Loads for Normal Life Expectancy. 8-9 8-3. Loading on the Basis of Ambient Temperatures. 8-9 8-4. Basic Impulse Insulation Levels. 8-10 8-5. Standard Secondary Unit Substation Percent Impedances. 8-11 9-1. Aerial-Mounted Liquid-Filled Transformer Surge Protective Margins. 9-2 9-2. Resistance of One 5/8-Inch by 10-Foot Ground Red in Various Soils. 9-6 10-1. Illumination Versus Spacing. 10-1 10-2. Sports Lighting. 10-4 10-3. Characteristics of Light Sources. 10-5 11-1. Security Lighting Requirements. 11-2 11-2. Floodlight Beam Descriptions. 11-5 11-3. Floodlight Class Descriptions. 11-? B-1. Demand Factors. B-1
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    Tue Aug 23, 2011 05:10:19 AM

    this book is so useful

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