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An overview of the electrical and electronic devices that are the basis of modern analog and digital circuits. Basic analog devices including diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Field Effect Transistors (FETs). Diode based circuits including regulators and rectifiers. Simple analog transistor amplifier circuits. Operational amplifier circuits. Transistors for digital logic. Interfacing circuits to one another - input/output characteristics. Thyristors and thyristor based circuits.
Most people can readily relate to the concept of resistance in electric circuits and to the concept of energy storage and release through inductance and capacitance. Our understanding is greatly enhanced by the fact that relatively straightforward and systematic techniques can be used to model circuits with these elements. In the so- called "time-domain" we can use the simple interrelationships between voltage and current in these devices to analyse these passive circuits:
v=iR (Resistor Relationship - Ohm' s Law)
i=C.dv/dt (Capacitor Relationship)
v=L.di/dt (Inductor Relationship)(Inductor Relationship) ...(1) (Inductor Relationship) We couple these relationships with the use of Kirchoff's voltage and current laws in order to analyse circuits. As circuits become more complex, we introduce the traditional mathematical approaches to the solution of differential equations in order to determine the transient and steady-state conditions of circuits. The LaPlace Transform technique and the Phasor-Method technique are, respectively, the two most common (and interrelated) methods used to solve for transient and steady-state circuit conditions. When we introduce common electronic devices, such as diodes, transistors, etc. into our circuits, analysis becomes far more complicated - particularly when circuits are used for analog applications. Not only do we have to contend with all of the above analysis techniques, but we additionally need to consider dependent voltage and current sources that add substantially to analysis problems. Moreover, analysis of circuits with devices such as diodes and thyristors requires the use of intuition in order to simplify circuits that are otherwise unwieldy. It is therefore much more difficult to develop systematic techniques for analysing and understanding the operation of such circuits. It is not only the analysis of analog electronic circuits that causes problems. Implementation introduces a whole range of complex problems with which we need to contend. It is often said that the implementation and testing of analog electronic circuits is composed of 10% design and 90% trouble-shooting. This rule-of-thumb arises because of the parasitic characteristics of each of the electronic devices that we will be examining in this chapter.
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"Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Devices and Circuits "
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