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Single Supply versus Dual Supply, When op amps are powered from dual supplies (see Figure 4–1), the supplies are normally equal in magnitude, opposing in polarity, and the center tap of the supplies is connected to ground. Any input sources connected to ground are automatically referenced to the center of the supply voltage, so the output voltage is automatically referenced to ground.
Single-supply op amp design is more complicated than split-supply op amp design, but with a logical design approach excellent results are achieved. Single-supply design used to be considered technically limiting because older op amps had limited capability. The new op amps, such as the TLC247X, TLC07X, and TLC08X have excellent single-supply parameters; thus when used in the correct applications these op amps yield rail-to-rail performance equal to their split-supply counterparts.
Single-supply op amp design usually involves some form of biasing, and this requires more thought, so single-supply op amp design needs discipline and a procedure. The recommended design procedure for single-supply op amp design is:
- Substitute the specification data into simultaneous equations to obtain m and b (the slope and intercept of a straight line).
- Let m and b determine the form of the circuit.
- Choose the circuit configuration that fits the form.
- Using the circuit equations for the circuit configuration selected, calculate the resistor values.
- Build the circuit, take data, and verify performance.
- Test the circuit for nonstandard operating conditions (circuit power off while interface power is on, over/under range inputs, etc.)
- Add protection components as required.
When this procedure is followed, good results follow. As single-supply circuit designers expand their horizon, new challenges require new solutions. Remember, the only equation a linear op amp can produce is the equation of a straight line. That equation only has four forms. The new challenges may consist of multiple inputs, common-mode voltage rejection, or something different, but this method can be expanded to meet these challenges.
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"Single-Supply Op Amp Design Techniques"
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