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[ pdf ] Layer of Protection Analysis LOPA articles

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Source: www.process-improvement-institute.com 
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Last download on: Thu Apr 12, 2018 02:12:42 AM
Short Desciption:
The following were the two definitive papers on the topic of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA). The CCPS textbook and our course notebook provide the most up-to-date explanation on LOPA, but these two articles are excellent starting points.

Summary:
How do you know how many safeguards are enough to prevent or mitigate a chemical process impact event? What integrity level should be chosen for a Safety Instrumented (interlock) System (SIS)? Building on the CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes, this paper describes a new PHA (Process Hazard Analysis) tool called Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA). Starting with data developed in the HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability analysis), and suggested screening values, the methodology accounts for the risk reduction of each safeguard. The mitigated risk for an impact event can be compared with the corporation's criteria for unacceptable risk. Additional safeguards or independent protection layers can be added. The required integrity level for any SIS safeguards can be determined. LOPA focuses the risk reduction efforts toward the impact events with the highest risks. It provides a rational basis to allocate risk reduction resources efficiently. LOPA can be easily applied after the HAZOP, but before fault tree analysis.
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