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 pdf file Kapillar-Gaschromatographie
Universität Ulm. Abteilung Analytische Chemie und Umweltchemie. 1. Kapillar-Gaschromatographie. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Einleitung. 2. 2 Theoretische Ansätze

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:39:25 AM


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 pdf fileFUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT
Gas measurement fundamentals are based on principles of chemistry and the physical behavior of matter. This discussion has endeavored to cover the basic principles of chemistry and physics that form the foundation for gas measurement. Knowledge of these principles is fundamental to the understanding of gas measurement.

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Last download: Sun Feb 12, 2017 08:34:24 PM


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 pdf fileAn Overview of Measurements Methods and Calculations Used in Combustion Analysis
Combustion occurs when fossil fuels, such as natural gas, fuel oil, coal or gasoline, react with oxygen in the air to produce heat. The heat from burning fossil fuels is used for industrial processes, environmental heating or to expand gases in a cylinder and push a piston. Boilers, furnaces and engines are important users of fossil fuels.

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Last download: Mon Jan 02, 2017 03:33:50 PM


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 pdf fileCOMPRESSIBILITY OF NATURAL GAS
The compressibility factor is a ubiquitous concept in measurement. It arises in many industry practices and standards. Unfortunately the mathematical methods and data associated with it obscure some of the basic ideas behind it. The purpose of this paper is to provide background and insight into the development of compressibility factor methods, discuss its development and use in natural gas measurement, provide examples of the behavior of the compressibility factor over a broad range of conditions, and illustrate the level of uncertainty that compressibility standards provide.

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:40:05 AM


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 pdf fileFundamentals of Liquid Measurement Part 1
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the ‘custody transfer’ volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the ‘true’ volume at the referenced ‘standard’ pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:40:19 AM


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 pdf fileGas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography (GC), is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside glass or metal tubing, called a column

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:40:32 AM


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 pdf fileGas chromatography mass spectrometry
Gas chromatography (GC) is undoubtedly one of the key techniques used for screening / identification / quantification of many groups of non-polar and/or semi-polar food toxicants (or their GC amenable derivatisation products). The high attainable separation power (potential number of theoretical plates) in combination with a wide range of the detectors employing various detection principles to which it can be coupled makes GC an important, often irreplaceable tool in the analysis of (ultra)trace levels of toxic food components that may occur in such complex matrices as foods and feeds

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:40:49 AM


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 pdf fileBTU Analysis Using a Gas Chromatograph
Since the early eighties, it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:41:01 AM


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 pdf fileBTU ANALYSIS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH
The most widely used method to determine BTU content of natural gas is by gas chromatograph. The analytical data provided by this means represents over half of the weighted information needed for total energy determination. The potential financial impact of this data is tremendous. It is imperative that the quality of the data produced by laboratories using gas chromatographs for BTU determination is accurate.

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Last download: Sat Oct 01, 2016 08:41:13 AM


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